A evolução das políticas de vinculação da diáspora da Turquia (2003-2014)

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-85852503880006816

Palavras-chave:

Turquia, Emigração, políticas de vinculação da diáspora, AKP

Resumo

Este artigo explica o repentino interesse da Turquia em implementar políticas de vinculação da diáspora durante o período em que Erdo?an ocupou o cargo de primeiro-ministro do país (2003-2014). Argumenta-se que a evolução dessas políticas foi resultado de uma combinação de fatores domésticos, transnacionais e internacionais: internamente, a ascensão do AKP ao poder resultou em reformas econômicas e políticas e na promoção de uma nova identidade nacional baseada no neo-otomanismo e no nacionalismo sunita-muçulmano. Transnacionalmente, a crescente influência socioeconômica e política das comunidades turcas nos países de abrigo instou a Turquia a reconsiderar a eficácia de sua diáspora como fonte de influência no exterior, bem como um eleitorado em eleições nacionais. Acontecimentos internacionais também moldaram a nova agenda diaspórica do país, como o aumento do poder de barganha vis-à-vis a UE desde o início dos anos 2000 e o aumento da islamofobia no pós-11 de setembro.

Biografia do Autor

Alex Guedes Brum, Fundação Getúlio Vargas

Doutor em História, Política e Bens Culturais pela FGV e ex-bolsista Doutorado Nota 10 da FAPERJ. Mestre em Estudos Estratégicos da Defesa e da Segurança pela UFF. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil. E-mail: alexbrum23@outlook.com.

Referências

ADAMSON, Fiona B. Sending states and the making of intra-diasporic politics: Turkey and its diaspora(s). International Migration Review, v. 53, n. 1, p. 210-236, 2019.

AKÇAPAR, ?ebnem Kö?er; AKSEL, Damla Bayraktar. Public diplomacy through diaspora engagement: The case of Turkey. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs, v. 22, n. 3, p. 135-160, 2017.

AKÇAY, Engin; ALIMUKHAMEDOV, Farkhad. Reevaluating Contemporary “diaspora policy” of Turkey. The Journal of Faculty of Economics & Administrative Sciences, v. 18, n. 1, p. 103-115, 2013.

AKSEL, Damla. Kins, distant workers, diasporas: constructing Turkey’s transnational members abroad. Turkish Studies, v. 15, n. 2, p. 195-219, 2014.

ARKILIC, Ayca. Explaining the evolution of Turkey’s diaspora engagement policy: a holistic approach. Diaspora Studies, v. 14, n. 1, p. 1-21, 2020a.

______. Empowering a fragmented diaspora: Turkish immigrant organizations’ perceptions of and responses to Turkey’s diaspora engagement policy. Mediterranean Politics, v. 27, n. 5, p. 1-26, 2020b.

______. The Alevi diaspora in France: changing relations with the home and host state in the 2000s. In: MARKUSSEN, Hege; OZKUL, Derya (eds.). Alevis in Turkey and the Diaspora: Recognition, Mobilisation and Transformation. Edimburgo: Edinburgh University Press, 2022, p. 166-190.

AYDIN, Ya?ar. The new Turkish diaspora policy. SWP Research Paper. 2014. Disponível em: <https://www.swp-berlin.org/publications/products/research_papers/2014_RP10_adn.pdf>. Acesso em: 13.08.2021.

AYDIN, Seda; ØSTERGAARD-NIELSEN, Eva. Diaspora Policies, Consular Services and Social Protection for Turkish Citizens Abroad. In: LAFLEUR, Jean-Michel; VINTILA, Daniela (eds.). Migration and Social Protection in Europe and Beyond. Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 401-418.

BARRINHA, André. Turquia. In: FREIRE, Maria Raquel (coord.). Política Externa: As Relações Internacionais em Mudança. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2011, p. 361-385.

BASER, Bahar; OZTURK, Ahmet Erdi. Turkey’s Diaspora Governance Policies and Diasporas from Turkey in Germany: A Critical Reading of the Changing Dynamics. In: HATAY, Mete; ZENONAS, Tziarras (eds.). Kinship and Disporas in Turkish Foreign Policy: Examples from Europe, the Middle East and the Eastern Mediterranean. Nicósia: PRIO Cyprus Centre, 2019, p. 29-45.

BILGILI, Özge; SIEGEL, Melissa. Understanding the changing role of the Turkish diaspora. 2011. Disponível em: http://collections.unu.edu/eserv/UNU:209/ wp2011-039.pdf. Acesso em: 13.08.2021.

BILGILI, Özge; SIEGEL, Melissa. From economic to political engagement: Analysing the changing role of the Turkish diaspora. In: COLLYER, Michael (ed.). Emigration nations. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 277-301.

BRAH, Avtar. Cartographies of diaspora: Contesting identities. Londres: Routledge, 1996.

BRAND, Laurie. Citizens Abroad: State and Emigration in the Middle East and North Africa. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

BRINKERHOFF, Jennifer. Diasporas and Development. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2008.

BRUM, Alex Guedes. Brasileiros no exterior: o caso da Flórida. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Multifoco, 2018.

COLLYER, Michael. Introduction: Locating and narrating emigration nations. In: COLLYER, Michael (ed.). Emigration Nations. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, p. 1-24.

DAHINDEN, Janine. The dynamics of migrants’ transnational formations: Between mobility and locality. In: BAUBÖCK, Rainer; FAIST, Thomas (eds.). Diaspora and transnationalism: Concepts, theories and methods. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010, p. 51-71.

DÉLANO, Alexandra. Mexico and Its Diaspora in the United States: Policies of Emigration Since 1848. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

DOMBEY, Daniel. Six Markets to Watch. Foreign Affairs. 2014. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 13.08.2021.

ELITOK, Secil Paçac?. Turkish migration policy over the last decade: A gradual shift towards better management and good governance. Turkish Policy Quarterly, v. 12, n. 1, p. 161-172, 2013.

ESCRIBÀ-FOLCH, Abel; MESEGUER, Covadonga; WRIGHT, Joseph. Remittances and democratization. International Studies Quarterly, v. 59, n. 3, p. 571-586, 2015.

FAIST, Thomas. Diaspora and transnationalism: What kind of dance partners? In: BAUBÖCK, Rainer; FAIST, Thomas (eds.). Diaspora and Transnationalism. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010, p. 9-34.

FIRMEZA, George Torquato. Brasileiros no exterior. Brasília: FUNAG, 2007.

GAMLEN, Alan. Diaspora institutions and diaspora governance. International Migration Review, v. 48, n. 1, p. 180-217, 2014.

GLASIUS, Marlies. Extraterritorial authoritarian practices: A framework. Globalizations, v. 15, n. 2, p. 179-197, 2018.

GLICK-SCHILLER, Nina. Long Distance Nationalism. In: EMBER, Levin; EMBER, Carol; SKOGGARD, Ian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Diasporas. Nova Iorque: Kluwer, 2005, p. 80-90.

HALL, Stuart. Avtar Brah’s cartographies: Moment, method, meaning. Feminist Review, v. 100, n. 1, p. 27-38, 2012.

HAN, Enze. Bifurcated homeland and diaspora politics in China and Taiwan towards the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, v. 45, n. 4, p. 577-594, 2019.

HAZIR, Ümit Nazmi. Anti-Westernism in Turkey’s Neo-Ottomanist Foreign Policy under Erdo?an. Russia in Global Affairs, v. 20, n. 2, p. 164-183, 2022.

HOLLIFIELD, James. Migration and International Relations. In: ROSENBLUM, Marc; TICHENOR, Daniel (eds.). Oxford Handbook of the Politics of International Migration. Nova Iorque: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Council mobilizing the Turkish diaspora. HÜRRIYET. 2012. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 13.08.2021.

IÇDUYGU, Ahmet. Turkish Migrant Participation in Civic and Political Life. Turkish Studies, v. 10, n. 2, p. 135-137, 2009.

?ÇDUYGU, Ahmet; AKSEL, Damla. Turkish migration policies: A critical historical retrospective. Perceptions, v. 18, n. 3, p. 167-190, 2013.

KAYA, Ayhan. German-Turkish transnational space: A separate space of their own. German Studies Review, v. 30, n. 3, p. 483-502, 2007.

KAYA, Ayhan. Right-wing populism and Islamophobism in Europe and their impact on Turkey–EU relations. Turkish Studies, v. 21, n. 1, p. 1-28, 2020.

KIRI?ÇI, Kemal. Turkey: A transformation from emigration to immigration. Migration Policy Institute. 2003. Disponível em: <https://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/turkey-transformation-emigration-immigration>. Acesso em: 19.05.2021.

KOINOVA, Maria; TSOURAPAS, Gerasimos. How do countries of origin engage migrants and diasporas? Multiple actors and comparative perspectives. International Political Science Review, v. 39, n. 3, p. 311-321, 2018.

KOLBA?I-MUYAN, Gizen. Türkiye’s Diaspora Engagement Policy: Change in Perspective Since 2010. Bilig, n. 105, p. 99-128, 2023.

KÖSE, Mehmet. Boundaries of the Turkish Diaspora. Turkish Journal of Diaspora Studies, v. 1, n. 1, p. 64-79, 2021.

KÖSEBALABAN, Hasan. Turkish foreign policy: Islam, nationalism, and globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2011.

LAGUERRE, Michel. Global Neighborhoods. Binghamton: SUNY Press, 2009.

LEVITT, Peggy; DE LA DEHESA, Rafael. Transnational migration and the redefinition of the state: Variations and explanations. Ethnic and racial studies, v. 26, n. 4, p. 587-611, MARGHERITIS, Ana. State-led transnationalism and migration: reaching out to the Argentine community in Spain. Global Networks, v. 7, n. 1, p. 87-106, 2007.

MÁRMORA, Lelio. Las políticas migratórias internacionales. Buenos Aires: OIM-Paidós, 2002.

MENCUTEK, Zeynep Sahin; BASER, Bahar. Mobilizing Diasporas: Insights from Turkey’s Attempts to Reach Turkish Citizens Abroad. Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, v. 20, n. 1, p. 86-105, 2018.

MÜGGE, Liza. Managing transnationalism: Continuity and change in Turkish state policy. International Migration, v. 50, n. 1, p. 20-38, 2012.

MÜGGE, Liza. Ideologies of nationhood in sending-state transnationalism: Comparing Surinam and Turkey. Ethnicities, v. 13, n. 3, p. 338-358, 2013.

MYLONAS, Harris. The Politics of Nation-Building: Making Co-Nationals, Refugees, and Minorities. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

ÖKTEM, Kerem. Turkey’s New Diaspora Policy. 2014. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 12.08.2021.

OKYAY, Asl?. Diaspora-making as a state-led project. Tese de Doutorado. Florença, European University Institute, 2015.

ØSTERGAARD-NIELSEN, Eva. Turkey and the ‘Euro Turks’: Overseas nationals as an ambiguous asset. In: ØSTERGAARD-NIELSEN, Eva (ed.). International Migration and Sending Countries. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003a, p. 77-98.

______. Transnational Politics: Turks and Kurds in Germany. Londres: Routledge, 2003b.

______. Sending country policies. In: GARCÉS-MASCAREÑAS, Blanca; PENNINX, Rinus (eds.). Integration processes and policies in Europe. Cham: Springer, 2016. p. 147-165.

PADILLA, Beatriz. Engagement policies and practices: expanding the citizenship of the Brazilian diaspora. International Migration, v. 49, n. 3, p. 10-29, 2011.

SHAIN, Yossi; BARTH, Aharon. Diasporas and international relations theory. International organization, v. 57, n. 3, p. 449-479, 2003.

SHEFFER, Gabriel. Diaspora Politics. Nova Iorque: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

SHUVAL, Judith. Diaspora migration: Definitional ambiguities and a theoretical paradigm. International migration, v. 38, n. 5, p. 41-56, 2000.

SMITH, Robert. Diasporic Memberships in Historical Perspective: Comparative Insights from the Mexican, Italian and Polish Cases. International Migration Review, v. 37, n. 3, p. 724-759, 2003.

TOTORICAGUENA, Gloria. Opportunity Structures in Diaspora Relations. Reno: Center for Basque Studies Press, 2007.

TA?PINAR, Ömer. Turkey: The New Model? 2012. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 13.08.2021.

TURQUIA. Ministério das Relações Exteriores. 2020. Disponível em: . Acesso em: 27.05.2021.

VERMEULEN, Floris. The Paradox of Immigrant Political Participation in Europe Amidst Crises of Multiculturalism. In: MENJÍVAR, Cecilia; RUIZ, Marie; NESS, Immanuel (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Migration Crises. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 801-816.

VERTOVEC, Steven. Conceiving and researching transnationalism. Ethnic and racial studies, v. 22, n. 2, p. 447-462, 1999.

YAVUZ, Hakan. Introduction. In: YAVUZ, Hakan (ed.). The Emergence of a New Turkey. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 2006, p. 1-23.

YENER-RODERBURG, Inci Öykü. Party organizations across borders: top-down satellites and bottom-up alliances. The case of AKP and HDP in Germany. In: KERNALEGENN, Tudi; VAN HAUTE, Émilie (eds.). Political Parties Abroad. Abingdon: Routledge, 2020, p. 218-237.

Downloads

Publicado

2023-09-13

Como Citar

Guedes Brum, A. (2023). A evolução das políticas de vinculação da diáspora da Turquia (2003-2014). REMHU, Revista Interdisciplinar Da Mobilidade Humana, 31(68), 263–279. https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-85852503880006816